Do you believe that a part of the bell is knocked, the whole bell will sound together even if a bell is divided into many pieces and placed everywhere in the universe?
That’s what we call it quantum entanglement. Once two particles become entangled, when one changes, it is immediately reflected in the other, whether they are in the same laboratory or hundreds of millions of light-years apart. Einstein suspected quantum theory, but scientists found it was one of Einstein’s few but perhaps biggest mistakes.
The History of Quantum Entanglement
Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen first discussed the counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics about strongly correlated systems in their joint paper.
In 1972, John Clauser and Stuart Freedman first conducted an experiment of quantum entanglement, but too many vulnerabilities of the experiment were suspected by people.
In 2015, scientists at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands demonstrated the existence of quantum entanglement by using microwave pulses and lasers to make electrons entangled. While the experiment claims “no holes”, some scientists were not sure.
Until April 25 2018, a team led by Mika Sillanpaa, a professor of the Aalto University in Finland, successfully entangled two separate vibrating tympanic membranes. For the first time, Human beings can see the phenomenon of quantum entanglement.
In the same year, Oxford University researchers examined the experiment which conducted by physicist David Cole in 2016. After analysis, they said the experiment was valid.
The Recent Research of Quantum Entanglement
For most people, the theory of quantum entanglement is unfathomable. On July 13th, however, the BBC reported a new study of quantum entanglement.
Paul-Antoine Moreau, physicist of the University of Glasgow’s School of Physics and Astronomy, and his team captured the first image of quantum entanglement. Although quantum entanglement has been tested and used in some fields, it has never been captured in a single image. The appearance of this image undoubtedly caused a sensation around the world.
So, how did scientists take the incredible photo?
This brings us to the famous Bell Inequality. In 1964, Bell put forward the basic idea of Bell’s Theorem in the form of inequality: No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics. Bell’s inequality makes the non-locality of quantum entanglement possible to be verified by physical experiments for the first time. Thus, the Bohr-Einstein debates, which were only on the philosophical level, can be quantitatively tested experimentally. In short, the violation of bell’s inequality proves the existence of quantum entanglement.
Based on this principle, the researchers designed a system that emits entangled photons from a quantum light source toward the “unconventional matter” shown on the liquid crystal material, which changes the phase of the photons as they pass through.
They placed an ultra-sensitive camera which is capable of detecting individual photons. When detecting the photon and its entangled twin exist at the same time, the camera captured the first precious image of the photon entanglement. The image presents a ring shape which shows two photons reflect off each other.
Paul-Antoine said the image was “an elegant demonstration of a fundamental property of nature”.
“It’s an exciting result which could be used to advance the emerging field of quantum computing and lead to new types of imaging.” He added.
The paper of Paul-Antoine Moreau and his team published in Science Advances：
The Future of Quantum Entanglement
The success of this research promotes the development of quantum entanglement technology in the future. Then where is the development direction of quantum entanglement?
The first field is quantum computers. Last year, physicists developed new ways to prove that quantum entanglement is one of the necessary fundamental features to make a quantum computer work. Once the quantum computer was created, it will surpass conventional computers in some tasks, storing information about the entire universe and running exponentially faster than normal computers. This would make it possible to use quantum computers to easily and quickly simulate the evolution of the entire universe, predicting precisely what is coming and what is going to happen.
The Second is encryption techniques for transmitting information. As computer technology becomes more powerful, traditional encryption methods are being challenged. Security issues in areas such as the Internet and e-commerce which require strict confidentiality of information, are becoming more critical. The technology could lead to practical applications such as the “quantum Internet”.
Besides, the technology of quantum entanglement can study the formation, remission, abnormality, recovery and other stages of diseases from the perspective of biological photons in the medical field. This means that people will be able to monitor their health with the technology, controlling the disease at an early stage and even killing the pathogenic factor of the disease before symptoms appear.
Of course, the applications of quantum entanglement in the future are not limited to these fields. Biology, nanotechnology, communication technology and so on are also involved. Time will tell human beings that quantum entanglement affects not only the past and present, but also the future.
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